Dennis Broe

Dennis Broe

Dennis Broe's latest book is Diary of a Digital Plague Year: Coronavirus, Serial TV and The Rise of The Streaming Services. He is also the author of Birth of the Binge: Serial TV and The End of Leisure. His TV series blog is Bro on The Global Television Beat. His radio commentary can be heard on his show Breaking Glass on Art District Radio in Paris and on Arts Express on the Pacifica Network in the U.S. He is the author of two novels: Left of Eden, about the Hollywood blacklist and A Hello to Arms, about the postwar buildup of the weapons industry. He is currently teaching in the Masters' Program at the Ecole Superieure de Journalisme. He is an arts critic and correspondent for the Morning Star and for Crime Time, People’s World and Culture Matters, where he is an Associate Editor.

Canadian TV series, Quibi, surveillance capitalism and mental junk food
Monday, 18 May 2020 11:15

Canadian TV series, Quibi, surveillance capitalism and mental junk food

Dennis Broe continues his series, looking at how Cardinal inverts the usual cliched story of individual serial killers to suggest the shared gult of capitalists; how Tribal suggests bias against First Nations people in the justice system in Canada; and points to the links between the new Quibi Turnstyle format and surveillance capitalism. Image above from Tribal

In the spotlight this week is Canadian television, as two series with exceptionally interesting seasons have just concluded. Cardinal, on the private network CTV follows an Anglo male and a French/Quebecois/female detective team investigating serial killings in the frozen mythical hamlet of Algonquin Bay, in northern Ontario. The show has just wrapped after its fourth season, by far its most interesting, especially the stunning twist on the trite cliché of the individual serial killer.

The second series is Tribal, a pairing of a female Native Canadian chief, also a detective, with a seasoned and at first cynical and racist male colleague, who slowly reacts against the predominant mood on the local Alberta police force and respect his partner’s culture. Tribal, which boasts actors known to U.S. and global TV audiences – Jessica Matten from the CBC and U.S. CW series Burden of Truth and Brian Markenson a veteran of Mad Men and many Canadian series including the too-quickly cancelled The Romeo Section – is the second major series from APTN, the Aboriginal People’s TV Network. APTN programing consists of North American indigenous news and series, spotlighting Northern Canadian regions, while also linking to other indigenous peoples around the world, particularly in Australia and New Zealand.

Cardinal

The detective pairing in Cardinal, the lead detective John Cardinal played by Billy Campbell from The Killing and his partner Lise Delorme (Karine Vanasse from the ABC series Revenge), is a cagey way of producing a show that plays to both Anglo Canada on CTV and French Canada on the channel Super Ecran, both owned by the same company. Lise’s Frenchness is not much remarked upon on the series and the final season, which concentrated on her reactions to the case, is the exception as her tenaciousness and compassion is usually outshined by Cardinal’s obsession, just as French Quebec is subordinated to the Anglo majority in Canada.

The series, available on BBC4 and Hulu, is based on the award-winning novels of Giles Blunt, with each season featuring a serial killer who Cardinal is obsessed with tracking. The small town of Algonquin Bay has more murders per capita than possibly any town in the world, except those in Iceland where its mystery writers have collectively killed off a high percentage of the population in a country where in reality there are hardly any murders.

The first three seasons are mainly interesting for the relations between the two leads, with Cardinal moving in the course of the show from darkly obsessed to willing to acknowledge in the fourth season, at the urging of his daughter, that he has feelings for his intrepid partner Lise. The murder element in the first three seasons is a sort of highly sadistic torturing of both the Algonquin Bay residents and the audience, as the detectives pursue ever more perverse, and ever less socially connected and defined, killers.       

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But something different happens in season four and, as in the Icelandic series The Valhalla Murders, the narrow serial killer motif begins to widen. The inciting incident in the killer’s revenge trajectory involves the greed of the supposedly morally upright victims, who participate in a scheme to rid the forests of its birds and make it available for logging. The killer’s calling card is a feather, to remind his victims of their part in this tragedy. So the guilt in this last season rests not with a socially isolated loner but with the greed that is constantly engulfing Canada’s frozen north, where the rush to strip the land of its minerals and its forests gained such momentum under the reign of the conservative Stephen Harper. The background of the serial killer is linked to the larger issues of environmental exploitation for profit, and the perpetrators are not only the isolated individual but a group of capitalists and their henchmen. It’s a vast improvement on the possibilities of a tired narrative tradition in the crime field.

Tribal, available on Blu-ray and DVD from Netflix and Amazon, tracks the efforts of the local Calgary police to integrate the tribal police force into their ranks. The experiment is merely a public relations gambit to make it seem that the era of colonization is over but it gathers steam as the local chief, Samantha Woodburn, slowly convinces her ageing, world weary and broken partner, “Buke” Bukosky, that her First Nation’s ways have meaning and value.

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Near the end of the first season’s eight episodes, the series hits its stride. Buke rises to the defence of his colleague as the Calgary police commissioner wants to cancel the project. In the highlight of season one, a now-corrupt Native former lead officer delivers a monologue about the unequal and unfair nature of justice as it is meted out to First Nations people by the state through the local police force. Samantha attempts to prove him innocent of a police frame-up, and the guilty finger slowly starts to point toward the racist Anglo police force itself.

This is the second series by showrunner Ron E. Scott, who also created Blackstone about reservation lives and struggles and which ran for five seasons on APTN. Tribal is a flagship show designed, with its crossover pairing of an Anglo and Native cop, to promote the network, partially funded by the Canadian government, and allow it to expand its work of countering the neglect and devaluing of the Northern indigenous peoples as an excuse and rationale to pilfer their resources.

Quibbling With Quibi (Part II)

This week we will look at Quibi form and content. The service is exclusively available and designed for mobile phones. It uses what it calls Turnstyle video technology, allowing the shows to be viewed in either horizontal (landscape) form which makes it more like a traditional though tiny screen, or vertical form where presumably one could also run other applications underneath while watching the series. The service attempts to turn the limitations of mobile phone viewing into gimmicky bonuses so that, for example, the upcoming Steven Spielberg Horror series After Dark can only be viewed at night. Of course this also makes apparent the way that viewers are being monitored since their phones can only activate the show in the evening.

Martin Scorsese’s comments on the era of the superhero film in the age of streaming apply here. He called these films, produced by Katzenberg’s former studio Disney, “theme parks” rather than “the cinema of human beings trying to convey emotional psychological experience.” Quibi “series” on the other hand are just single rides, reduced, in their 7 to max 10-minute form, to the ride alone. No buying tickets, no getting in line, no anticipation, just the ride, with almost nothing to show for it when the ride is over.

The other “innovation” in the short form consists in possibly undercutting industry labour contracts which have not caught up with this new technology, and paying reduced rates for workers employed on Quibi’s “entertainment bites” as opposed to longer-form series. There is a possibility that this loophole is what allowed the service to launch and produce so many series so rapidly. As Shoshana Zuboff says, these new forms of surveillance capitalism partly rely on outwitting regulation by moving so rapidly they cannot be evaluated and countered. She adds that…“In the absence of a clear-minded appreciation of this new logic of accumulation, every attempt at understanding, predicting, regulating, or prohibiting the activities of surveillance capitalists will fall short.”

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As for the series themselves it is important to emphasize that the high-end flagship dramatic series constitute very little of the total Quibi content which is primarily what it calls “news” and features as well as short form documentaries. One of Quibi’s “innovations” is raising the status of social media “influencers” so that their shows appear alongside recognized industry names. Prominent among these is The Rachel Hollis Show where the host dispenses pithy advice to young mothers in the nature of “it’s not the quantity of the time you spend with your kids, it’s the quality.” Says Hollis, “As an influencer, what everyone dreams about, literally, is being an early adopter…the first person to step into the space.”

Hollis is the perfect Quibi representative, someone who values getting there first over making any positive social contribution and whose dream life, her interior psyche, is given over to nothing but visions of her own empty success. She is to the post-natal field what Trump is to politics.

As for the dramatic series, there is a possibility that the form could be valuable. The 20-minute podcast from which the Amazon series Homecoming was adapted made for very tightly constructed half-hour episodes of that series, enhancing its critique of the corporate over human values of the pharmaceutical industry. For the most part that does not happen with the purely “entertainment” preoccupation of founder Jeffrey Katzenberg’s Disney-Dreamworks imprint on Quibi.

So, in the remake of The Most Dangerous Game with The Hunger Game’s Liam Hemsworth, a Detroit down-and-out denizen of a decaying city willing to sell his soul to get the money for his wife’s cancer treatment to corporate exec Christopher Waltz (Inglourious Basterds), who is sheltered in a gleaming tower, has some resonance with the contemporary situation. However, a more daring casting with an African-American actor in the lead might have resounded at the moment, because of the Georgia hunting and killing by an ex-investigator of the black jogger Aumaud Arbery. It might have highlighted the way this kind of hunting of African-American men not only persists in the U.S. but is rationalized by the system, as the murderers in Georgia were only arrested two months after in the wake of a national public outcry. But this kind of radical envisioning of deep-seated racism, which is the subject of the film Get Out, might have upset the mindless entertainment formula that in the end may doom Quibi to irrelevance.

Flipped, where two disgruntled workers decide to create their own Home Fixer Upper show is simply Quibi nodding in its fictional series to the mindless decider and influencer mentality that it is also promoting in its non-fiction entries.

Sam Raimi’s 50 States of Fright in some ways shows the real limitations of the form. The first series of horror episodes, which will highlight all 50 U.S. states, takes place in Michigan and incorporates elements of Raimi’s own A Simple Plan, in this case centering around greed for gold with the more traditionally spooky elements of his Evil Dead. The problem is that once you figure out what the horror payoff is for each episode, even an eight-minute episode begins to feel about two-and-a-half minutes too long. Quibi may become the victim of its own abbreviated form – since there really is little development, the audience may wander. Meanwhile Quibi will have done its job of further destroying our capacity for empathy, reflection and commitment.

The best of the opening round of Quibi series is the teen murder mystery When the Streetlights Go On, which, given the dark nature of its subject matter which concerns teen murders, really would have been much better titled When the Streetlights Go Off, and which features but does not star Queen Latifah. The mystery is compelling and the total length of the ten episodes clocks it at about the length of a film. Here the problem is the lack of depth in each episode, which must climax and then restart. This retards any actual character development because of the addictive imperative of forcing the viewer to the next episode.

Lockdown is being relaxed and workers are starting to come out of their homes. For many, this will involve leaving their homes to face unsafe working conditions and governments which do too little in the way of testing and screening. Is Quibi to be their only solace on the trip to and from their first, second, even third jobs? The lasting contribution of this service may be to convince more and more workers that they want more from the limited leisure time that is offered them than “quick bites” which are really just mental junk food.

Home Before Dark and Quibi
Wednesday, 13 May 2020 08:11

Home Before Dark and Quibi

Dennis Broe continues his series with a look at Home Before Dark and Quibi

It's the first masterful series from Apple TV+, after a horrible slip out of the gate with the clumsy, awkward The Morning Show. Home Before Dark details the efforts of a nine-year-old reporter to get to the bottom of a disappearance and supposed murder that has wracked a small town in the state of Washington. While The Morning Show glamorizes mainstream media, by supposedly reveling in its foibles, Home Before Dark is an actual critical series that exposes, though its youthful truth seeker, the inner workings of a small town ruled by aging male public officials who conceal and bury the truth.

The key to the series, which has several well-defined and extremely differentiated characters, is the intrepid reporter Hilde Lisko, based on an actual pre-teen journalist. The real-life journalist, also named Hilde, covers the crime beat, but the series improves on reality by altering this trajectory so that what the fictional Hilde focuses on is broader than crime reporting. Her interest is investigative journalism, and her heroes come from All The President's Men.

Her single-minded pursuit of the truth gets her to the bottom of a long buried crime which had resulted in the ostracizing of a Native American (Yakama) brother and sister. The brother, she discovers, had been falsely convicted of the disappearance of a young boy. The sheriff, the mayor and the sheriff's son all have secrets around the disappearance which they guard jealously.

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Hilde and her allies

Hilde also assembles a team to help in her investigation. There are her two classmates, an Asian girl and an African-American boy, Spoon and Donny. Donny is particularly well fleshed-out as a worldwise nine-year-old investigative entrepreneur. Her other allies include the independent African-American female deputy, Trip, the lone truth seeker in the sheriff's office, as well as Hilde's lawyer mother, who comes to the aid of the jailed Native American Sam. The villains are equally well drawn: The smug sheriff who constantly covers up his initial rush to judgment, the alcoholic mayor who may have beat his son, the missing boy Richie, and the sheriff's son, Frank, caught up in the lies of his father which have imprisoned him as well.

What the series does is assemble a group of outsiders who challenge the (white, male) power structure in the town and succeed. It's a Me-Too fairy tale where diversity triumphs. The enterprise is led by the stunning performance of Brooklynn Prince, its stalwart heroine.

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Teen romance in 'Blue Velvet'

The show tells some truths as well about what this new generation is facing. It has the structure of the John Hughes teen films of the 1980s, with its assembling of a Scooby-Doo gang, its focus on the romance of the adolescent older sister Izzy, and its food fight at school in the midst of which Hilde's group is assembled. However, this is a darker time than the '80s, so the 'teens' here are nine-year-olds, that is, exposed to murder, corruption and cover-ups much earlier than in the '80s, when neoliberalism was just starting to take hold. In these more perilous times, the confluence of greed and corruption is an essential part of what kids must confront in growing up. The darker mood is echoed and announced in the soundtrack, with refrains from Blue Velvet, itself partially a young adult and teen film which describes a far more guilty world than the films of the early '80s.

Home Before Dark also features generational differences in technology with its focus on the social media expertise of its pre-teen characters so that, for example, Hilde's paper is online while her father's was printed. The young entrepreneur Donny notes about their foes, 'My intel tells me they are smart and savvy,' and Hilde must explain to her grade-school colleagues what in the world microfiche is. Here, though, unlike Netflix's Stranger Things, the technology gap is seen as something to be overcome in their exposure of the truth, not as mere nostalgia.

The only false note in the series is the character of Hilde's father. Her sister Izzy, in a stunning moment, accuses Hilde of 'sucking the wind out of' everyone around her, as the sister, another well-draw character, feels stifled in a family with a star reporter. In the same way, Jim Sturgess's constant mumblecore Marlon Brando as Matt Lisko, a relocated Brooklyn slacker, is a solitary piece of ham acting that attempts to suck the wind out of what is an otherwise stunning ensemble cast. His digressions and constant illogical reversals often bring the show to a halt. Perhaps this is the problem of a group of actors, relatively less known, and a single actor, with more of a reputation (Cloud Atlas, Across the Universe), who attempts to monopolize the show and as such puts his own patriarchal imprint on it.

But this drawback does not succeed in sinking or even deterring the forward motion of the show. Hilde and her expert crew of diverse truth seekers expose and triumph over the decaying debris of a white male power structure which attempts to hang on at all costs and stands in the way of progressive change.

Quibbling Over Quibi (Part 1)

Quibi, which stands for Quick Bites – bursts of entertainment of less than 10 minutes, designed for mobile phone use on the go – launched in the US in early April in the midst of the lockdown.

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Quick Bites

This is no fly-by-the-seat-of-its-pants startup enterprise. The service collected $1.75 billion in funding from not only all the major Hollywood studios (Disney, NBC Universal, Sony, Warner, Liberty, CBS Viacom) but also the tech industry (Google and Alibaba), chemical industry (Proctor and Gamble) and major retail (Walmart).   

The head of this new streaming service, which like the others takes on the appearance of a major studio, is Jeffrey Katzenberg, former chair of Disney and then co-founder and CEO of DreamWorks. Katzenberg’s stamp is that of ‘pure’ entertainment. At Disney his reign produced The Little Mermaid, Aladdin, The Lion King and at DreamWorks, a Spielberg-Disney conglomerate, he oversaw Shrek, Kung Fu Panda and Monsters vs. Aliens. These were noxious and sometimes obnoxious (Shrek) overly media-savvy and saturated American fairy tales with little real progressive or social content, or diluted or muted to a general weak liberal line.

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Quibi’s stars 

The programming on Quibi follows the Katzenberg line, highly star oriented – with Jennifer Lopez, Queen Latifah, LeBron James, Steph Curry, Guillermo del Toro, Sam Raimi, Will Arnett – flashy, instantly grabbing but with little value other than diversion. Tales told, not by idiots but by highly skilled entertainers yet still ‘signifying nothing’ except to grab and hold the audience for the required 7 to 10 minutes. The high end is scripted series, but the majority of content is the much-cheaper-to produce second and third tier documentaries and ‘news’ features, headlined in some cases by social media ‘influencers,’ that is online product pluggers who have fashioned themselves into savvy consumer promoters, just when consumption under lockdown is taking a dive as people instead struggle with how to pay the rent and feed their families.

Quibi though is not just a studio, reviving the worst aspects of cable (a flagship dramatic series with the rest of the programming reruns) and “reality TV,” it is also a digital conglomerate and as such is a participant in all aspects of the surveillance economy. Its most startling innovation is that it is only available on mobile phones and designed to fill in the short gaps in workers’ lives as they scurry to their suddenly more dangerous jobs. At the moment, because of the amount of work being done at home, this “innovation” may have lost some of its potential to attract, though the app was downloaded 1.7 million times in the first week after its launch.

Katzenberg says Quibi is ‘the best of Hollywood and the best of Silicon Valley’ but it’s also the worst of each. The company earns revenue through ads and offers a cheaper monthly subscription rate for no ads and at its launch it had already secured a year’s worth of advertising time. Quibi will also harness viewer information both for its own programming purposes like Netflix – it asks your age when you subscribe – and in addition it may also sell the data to advertisers. Indeed, it has already been accused of ‘leaking’ email addresses to Google, Facebook and Twitter, companies adept at harnessing participant data for commercial surveillance. The Quibi come-on was a message saying ‘A whole world of quick bite entertainment awaits you. Please take a moment to confirm your email to better secure your account.’ It’s through gimmicks like this, as one media analyst put it, that companies are able to create such an all-encompassing profile.’

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Digital Conniving in Chris Hegedus’ and D.A. Pennebaker’s Start Up 

Quibi is also designed to take advantage of the coming 5G faster download speeds for mobile phones and as such may also raise rates for mobile subscribers as well as pushing the extensive development of the network of 5G towers, which may have an environmental safety factor involved. In addition, harking back to the 2001 film Start Up about a tech company whose idea is stolen before it goes to market by a rival who visits the company and views their interface, Quibi was accused of stealing video technology demo-ed for Katzenberg and other Quibi employees.

This is the underside of the smarmy ‘pure’ entertainment ethos of the Disney/DreamWorks American dream. The intense competition that pits all against all and leads to an endgame of big fish eating little fish, with the blood from the kill polluting the media waters.

Stream it, skip it or revolutionise it? Series TV post-Covid
Tuesday, 05 May 2020 09:26

Stream it, skip it or revolutionise it? Series TV post-Covid

Dennis Broe considers post-Covid-19 possibilities for a more progressive, artist-led approach to film and television series. Image from Superstore

Before quarantine when a phrase like “shelter in place” seemed like something out of the apocalyptic future forecast in The Walking Dead, the main issue in film and television was how the industry would manage the transition from an actual to a virtual world.

The studio system and the major television networks were being challenged by the gauntlet of streaming services and by a wave of consolidation that merged studios (Disney-Fox), paired communication distributors with product (AT&T-Time Warner) and cable networks with satellite production companies and networks (Comcast-Sky-NBC Universal).

Consolidation by corporations

The result of this consolidation and increasing monopolization is a group of behemoth streaming services—Netflix, Amazon, Disney+, Peacock (Comcast NBC), Apple+, and HBO Max (AT&T-Time Warner), that were set to challenge first US domestic and then global production, including national film and television support and channels.

This has all of course been hastened by the global Coronavirus sequestration as sheltering in place produces captive audiences and global activity moves online. Thus Jeff Bezos the richest man in the world increased his wealth by $25 billion in March , with Amazon’s online delivery spelling the end of many department stores and with the company cracking down on and firing dissenters. It’s online streaming service Amazon Prime is now in about half the households in America. Netflix added 2.3 million subscribers in the US and Canada for a global total of over 182 million and Disney+ in 5 months accumulated 50 million subscribers in what was predicted would take 2 years to accomplish.

So, one possibility of what can happen when the pandemic is over or contained is that this monopolization will continue unabated and induce a homogenization where six services produce the majority of the world’s television and increasingly film as well—with many films going immediately online in light of the closing of cinemas. Local production then will be merely collaborative with each country adding its own flavour to streaming service co-productions.

Another possibility is independently owned and produced subscription platforms, such as Means TV which bills itself as “the first post-capitalist cooperatively run streaming service.” Means produces an array of programs on such topics as Art House Politics, with artists using various video forms to comment on the contemporary social situation and exposés such as The Screenwriter with No Hands, about the mysterious death of a Hollywood scripter who investigated the industry’s relationship with the Pentagon and weapons manufacturers. This is essentially a kind of Steven Soderbergh iPhone school of do-it-yourself video with fairly professional aesthetic and production values.

Transformation by artists

There is a third possibility. That is divorcing already established and considerably accomplished film and television serial aesthetic and narration from the profit motive. Film and television artists from around the world struggle constantly with trying to accommodate their work to commercial imperatives, always fudging and softening what they might want to say if they had more freedom. In that sense, the vaunted freedom of Netflix, which writers and directors are trotted out to champion, has these artists still highly bound to the market, and also has them in most cases not able to profit from their work because they are paid a fee upfront and no residuals.

For this alternative to work, there would need to be a combination of the existing government funding—which admittedly in the short term will diminish due to the economic depression wrought by the combination of capitalism and coronavirus—public support and funding and a change in the attitude of artists who are willing to trade huge profits for a living wage, in order to truly create work they can be proud of, instead of work they must in part disavow and that only contributes to global addictive viewing.

What is needed is to wed the second and third possibilities, the aesthetic of contemporary film and particularly serial TV, the dominant narrative form of this era which can be adept at critical analysis of society, with the can-do spirit and vision of independent media. Series like the Icelandic The Valhalla Murders, deeply critical of the personal corruption of judicial power, the American Homecoming, darkly accusatory of the murderous profiteering of the drug companies and France’s Game of Influence, a penetrating look at the corrupt and deadly power of global polluters like Monsanto, all point the way to a more critical future. Not to mention marginalized sit-coms such as One Day At A Time and Superstore which focus on the challenges of minority single-parent families and the problems faced by a contemporary largely female, diverse labor force. The problem is these series are exceptions and only occur sporadically because of the need to fill the airwaves with innocuous blather, targeted to specific audiences to gain subscribers.

Two contradictions in the largest of the corporate services could be exploited to produce this change. The first is the desire of artists to utilize the narrative armature they have devised for a more socially directed purpose. This is what lies behind their, at the moment obligatory, paeans to the freedom of Netflix. The second is these artists' own desire to get paid, to have a living wage. Netflix, backed by the power of finance capital, pays them upfront and then profits in perpetuity from their work. Independent media would offer continual if lesser income. Many artists would be willing to make this tradeoff and it is also important that they, like any worker, be paid for their work, instead of being asked to work for free.

The Chinese word for crisis wei-ji contains the double meanings of danger and opportunity. The Coronacrisis in film and television could result in the danger of ever increasing corporate monopolization and homogenization or it could yield the opportunity of artists transforming an already powerful medium into a truly socially relevant one.

'Babylon Berlin' and German fascism; 'Superstore' and the age of Amazon
Tuesday, 28 April 2020 11:01

'Babylon Berlin' and German fascism; 'Superstore' and the age of Amazon

Dennis Broe reviews more series TV, from Germany and from the U.S. Image above: military fascists in Weimar Berlin 

Season three of the German megaseries Babylon Berlin continues the exploration of the tensions in the Weimar Republic, as it moves inexorably toward its demise and its replacement by fascism. The series centres around Inspector Gereon Rath, a sometimes staunch defender of the democracy and Charlotte Ritter – a vivacious character created for the series and not in the Volker Kutscher novels – who is a dirt-poor but brilliant club-girl or flapper, who wants to become an inspector herself.              

In the Weimar mix are Communists, Republicans, brown-shirted fascists and financiers, this last group promoting chaos and themselves supporting and intrigued with the fascist ideals. A very strong aspect of the series is that it does not reduce German fascism to Hitler, but instead depicts the much broader currents of the society that supported it, including the aforesaid banks and investors and those in the army and the police who were appalled by the spectacle of democracy.

Seasons one and two revealed the fascist support at the heart of the Berlin police force, while season three in its multiple strands includes a Nazi conspiracy, fuelled and organized by an ex-army officer and now one of the police commissars, to blame the Communists for a bombing that killed one of the Republic’s defenders.

Another of the multiple strands involves the 1929 stock market crash – the series begins with the collapse of the market and then flashes back – that has the fascist-favouring scion of a wealthy company preaching the good that come from total financial chaos. He then shorts the market and benefits from the global economic destruction wrought by the collapse of the American market.

The other main focus of this season concerns a series of murders in what amounts to a German super-production, an expressionist film musical that will introduce German audiences to sound and that recalls the American first sound film and musical, The Jazz Singer. The high quality production values make the film a comment on what Babylon Berlin is accomplishing in the present. In other words here is a German series, co-funded by German national television, filmed itself at the main German studio Babelsberg, the centre of the renowned era of Weimar production, and co-produced by a German auteur with a global reputation, Tom Tykwer (Run Lola Run, Cloud Atlas).  

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A Communist Rally in Weimar Germany

In its lavish recreation of the period, complete with long shots of densely populated Berlin streets, notable platz or squares and Caligari-like production numbers, the series is designed to rival megaseries such as HBO’s Game of Thrones and Westworld. Just as the musical is attempting to reposition German film to take on the Hollywood behemoth that had throttled European film production devastated by World War I, so too Babylon Berlin is a successful attempt to put German serial television on the global map, and challenge Hollywood. (Though the series is now distributed worldwide on Netflix.)  

This series also has far more to say about the nature of German fascism and its origin – this is more Berlin Alexanderplatz with its complex analysis of the class tensions that were preyed upon to bring Hitler to power – than more simplistic but bombastic fairy tales like Inglorious Bastards or more exploitative German national epics such as Downfall, about the last days of Hitler. Strong fascist undercurrents percolate around the show, but it isn’t until season three that Gereon becomes acquainted with a strange book titled Mein Kampf. In that way the show implicitly questions more simplistic retellings of the era, which supposedly began and ended with Hitler.  

There are some drawbacks to this third season. The solution to the movie murder plot is not very credible, though it does call attention to a type of fascist personality. Its resolution also fails to take advantage of the mysterious costuming of the villain that has been set up throughout the season. These though are offset by quirky remembrances of cinematic times past (the iris out that starts each episode), by dramatic uses of older film plot devices (the thrilling last-minute attempt by Charlotte to save her friend from the hangman’s axe that recalls The Mother and The Law segment from Intolerance) and by the series’ resolute conviction that multiple layers of the German financial, military and police were implicated in and in favour of fascism.  

'Superstore': the working class versus corporate management

The Coronavirus lockdown occurred in Hollywood just as the final episodes of many series were being shot and so for a multitude of viewers there will be no concluding episode this season. One of the casualties is the last episode of the lead actress of a little-touted but resonant working-class comedy called Superstore. America Ferrera is leaving the show, and that exit will now be carried over into next season.

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America Ferrera anchors Superstore 

Ferrera is a second generation Honduran actress who has now successfully anchored two sit-coms, this one and also a Hispanic take on the wonder and horror of the fashion industry called Ugly Betty. Her warm presence has been at the heart of two shows over nine seasons, a remarkable feat for a Latina, or for any actress, and which has mostly gone unnoticed.

The action in Superstore takes place in a Walmart type all-purpose venue set in a shopping mall in St. Louis. Perhaps the reason the show has flown under the radar, gaining little critical attention, is that it is heavily concerned with the problems of survival of a diverse workforce constantly challenged by, as the show puts it, “Corporate.” It’s not a sexy show which deals with middle-class anxiety over wealth but a working-class show which spotlights the everyday problems encountered by that workforce. The show is available to stream on iTunes.

The employees are often pitted against a corporate management which is constantly threatening to fire them if they organize, putting a positive spin on the store’s devastation in a tornado, and planning to replace them with robots.

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Superstore’s diverse, working-class workforce 

A crucial episode in the show’s maturation was 'Labour' the final episode of season one. Corporate refuses Cheyenne, a pregnant Asian teen, paid sick leave to have her baby. Jonah, the college-educated new hire proposes the workers organize and start a union. Amy (Ferrera), a manager and also Jonah’s romantic interest, opposes this move, claiming that it will only bring Corporate down on their heads. Glenn, the Christian supervisor, finally gets so frustrated with Corporate’s indifference that he orders Cheyenne home for six weeks and then adds, “with pay.” Corporate’s answer is to fire Glenn and this is too much for Amy, the least rebellious of the workers, as she leads the entire crew in a walkout. The season ends with the workers outside in the parking lot, challenging management.

Season four deals with the cruelty of US immigration policy, as ICE commandos invade the store and eventually corral Mateo, a gay Filipino and Cheyenne’s best friend. The season ends with Mateo led off to custody, and echoes the ending of Ken Loach’s Bread and Roses where a key character is likewise led into exile by a heartless border patrol.

Season five begins to come to grips with the question of automation and corporate’s attempts to replace workers with a store robot, which the workers react to by attacking. There is a confrontation scene as the company president, digitally addressing workers in this global chain which is called Cloud 9, stresses – with his eyes raised toward the heavens – his resoluteness about the company facing the future. He is confronted by a former corporate manager who explains that the future he is actually contemplating instead involves increasing automation and large-scale firings.

Superstore accepts the need for these global corporate chains but in its own resolute focus on the workforce implies they would be better run and function more humanely if owned and operated by the workers themselves, instead of by corporate capitalism. There are, of course, other ways of resisting, as detailed in Stacey Mitchell’s Big Box Swindle where whole towns have zoned these Walmart-type entities from settling in their region.

With the new focus on work conditions at Amazon as a result of the Coronavirus – the company has been shut down in France for unsafe work practices and forbidden to profit off the virus by selling non-necessary items – there are plenty of issues to fuel season six of this overlooked and undervalued series. In just the same sort of way essential workers are overlooked and undervalued in America, Britain, and indeed in the world as a whole.

Class and culture in the age of Coronavirus
Monday, 20 April 2020 14:50

Class and culture in the age of Coronavirus

Published in Cultural Commentary

Dennis Broe traces the links between class and the coronavirus, and parallels in cultural works. Plus ca change........

In many ways the rearrangement of life in the wake of the global impact of the Cornoavirus has created a brave new world. And in other ways, the arrangement has reinforced the cowardly old one.

Class differences during widespread global lockdowns and quarantines have in some ways hardened. There is a small minority of a rich class which passes this temporary isolation in comfort, having quickly evacuated the contagion of the city centres for sometimes palatial estates in the countryside. There is a sheltered middle class, many of whom are able to continue to work and earn online, though often at a diminished capacity. And finally there is an unsheltered working class, who must risk their lives in order to earn their daily bread.  

Here in Europe and particularly in France these distinctions are as profound as elsewhere, with perhaps a million people fleeing the high-contagion centre of Paris for their country homes, with new middle-class family subscribers flocking to the just opened Disney+ streaming service while cheering on medical workers each night at 8pm from their balconies.

CVCornoavirus Hospitals and Nurses

Finally, there are not only working-class nurses but also cashiers, that most unsung group of workers, 90 percent of whom are women and many of whom are from minority ethnic groups. They go to work each day and come home to crowded apartments in the Parisian suburbs, where the police are using the excuse of not having proper quarantine papers to assault these women’s children.

Europe, with its well-developed welfare state, might seem to be better equipped to combat the virus than the U.S., with its hollowed-out state folowing the Reagan-Bush-Clinton neoliberal attack. However, Europe also has experienced wave after wave of shocks and attacks on its social compact. For example, a French cashier noted that while doctors and nurses are being cheered today by both the people and the state, “Only a few months ago,” in the wake of a protest against the cutting of hospital budgets by the Macron government, “They were teargassed for daring to rally in the streets”.

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The impact of the virus echoes Daniel Defoe’s historical novel Journal of the Plague Year, written after the deadly assault of an earlier virus on 17th century London, where nearly 15 percent of the city perished. In observing the parallels, one wonders if these are because of the similar nature of each disease or because this new era of greed-take-all capitalism has hurtled us back to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, where protections for workers were almost nonexistent.

Upper-Class Quarantine: Flight to the Country and Wide Open Spaces

In Defoe’s account when the plague first appeared, “nothing was to be seen but wagons and carts, with goods, women, servants, children…; coaches filled with people of the better sort, and horsemen attending them, and all hurrying away.” His comment on this exodus of the rich from the city to escape the disease is that “they spread it in the country” and had they not fled, the plague would not have “been carried into so many country towns and houses as it was, to the great damage, and indeed to the ruin, of [an] abundance of people.”

Likewise, in France, where there are three million second homes, just before the Macron lockdown, Paris trains and highways were jammed with those exiting the city. After the lockdown the health minister had to beg Parisians to stay at home, rather than fleeing to the rural areas and especially to Normandy which was relatively untouched by the virus. One Brittany resident then saw these urban visitors on the beaches “in cool outfits as if they were on holiday,” adding “Quarantine is always for other people”.

Meanwhile Monaco, surrounded by the European virus epicentre countries of France, Italy and Spain, had (as of recently) only 60 cases total and 4 deaths. This country is the wealthiest in the world, with 30 percent of the population made up of millionaires and with a state that could afford to close the casinos, turn away cruise ships, and furlough for 90 days all its employees.

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Elsewhere the French online “faschosphere” was instead quick to blame immigrants for the virus. While others across the world noticed the similarities of the situation with this year’s Academy Award-winner Parasite, with its lower-class family living in a flooded basement, “stealing” internet reception and its upper class, corporate family living in a spacious mansion surrounded by acres of green lawns.

Middle-Class Quarantine: Sheltered in Place and Working Online

The disappearing middle class is sheltered at home, many able to at least pursue some semblance of their business through Zoom, the online meeting app. The company has thrived, going from 10 million to 200 million users as have many online businesses and this has no doubt improved the connectivity of the world. However, as Shoshana Zuboff claims in her monumental work The Age of Surveillance Capitalism, the secret of the internet is that its “evil design aims to exploit human weakness” by creating interfaces that “‘make users emotionally involved in doing something that benefits the designer more than them.’”

Zoom has already been accused of selling data to Facebook and recently hired a Facebook executive as an outsider advisor. The mass use of Zoom is the Holy Grail of selling user data to advertisers. For a long time, there has not been enough data on user’s emotions to match with their words to create more detailed profiles. The Zoom meetings supply that data in abundance, and will increase the quality of data sold or rented that can be used to supply more detailed consumer profiles. As Zuboff says, we grow ever closer to a B.F. Skinner-type “technology of behavior” that would “enable the application of …[surveillance] methods across entire populations.”

It doesn’t have to be this way. Chinese monetization of internet traffic, for example, doesn’t just package data to advertisers. The online service Lizhi creates its revenue stream by offering users the option of buying virtual gifts in which to shower their podcast favorites, as was the case with the Japanese girl group AKB48. Ironically it is China, which does not try to match the US in the efficiency of its consumer surveillance, which is constantly accused of being a thought-control, totalitarian society.

Working-Class Quarantine: Working and At Risk 

While wealthy Parisians were fleeing the city, in poor banlieus across the Peripherique such as Saint Denis, where the cashiers, sanitation workers, and health care workers live, there is “an exceptional excess” of deaths from the virus.This is similar to the disproportionate deaths in heavily African-American populated places in the U.S., such as areas of The Bronx and in the immigrant communities of Queens.

Defoe described a similar situation where servants who “were obliged to send up and down the streets for necessaries” contracted the disease. Similarly, restaurant workers along with the delivery service carriers put their lives in danger each day to bring food to those economically above them. Just as in the present pandemic, where in the French supermarkets new recruits from the suburbs abound, so too Defoe detailed a situation where “though the plague was chiefly among the poor, yet were the poor the most venturous and fearless of it, and went about their employment with a sort of brutal courage; ran into any business which they could get employment in, though it was the most hazardous.”

CVLes Miserables

Meanwhile, the police, whose often casual brutality is detailed in this year’s Caesar winner for best French film Les Miserables, have been cited by Human Rights Watch for “unacceptable and illegal” behavior for several beatings of young men from this polyglot area. These victims were accosted because they did or did not have their “attestation,” the legal paper required for leaving the home. The middle class face a fine of 138 euros for not having their papers – the working class face state violence.

In Marseilles, McDonald’s workers, led by the local union, the Force Ouvriere, decided to distribute the company’s food to the poorest districts of that city and to use the closed-down restaurant as a central site for collecting and preparing food. McDonald’s issued a statement opposing the measure.

Similarly, at a Crenshaw McDonald’s in South Central Los Angeles – one of the poorest districts in the US – when the workers staged a spontaneous action demanding they be sent home for a two-week quarantine, the protest was broken up by the police.

Amazon, one of the companies most extravagantly profiting from the quarantine, was temporarily forced to halt its operations in France when a court ruled the company had failed to adequately protect workers. The case was heard because several employees walked off the job, citing a law that allows workers to leave an unsafe workplace and receive full pay. In response, the company criticized the union that brought the case.

CVDelivery Drivers Under Fire in Ken Loachs Sorry We Missed You

What could be more prescient in the light of these protests by a most exploited workforce than Ken Loach’s latest film Sorry We Missed You, about how a delivery driver for an Amazon-type firm is being driven to despair because of the inhuman pressure put on him and his family to produce.

The quarantine also called attention to the importance of seasonal workers in Europe in terms of harvesting crops. In France, with an embargo against non-Europeans coming into the country, 200,000 workers are needed to replace this seasonal workforce to harvest fruit and vegetables in places like the Loire and Alsace to feed the urban population. These workers come from central and eastern Europe as well as from Tunisia and Morocco and most labor under impoverished conditions and leave after the harvest. Jean Renoir’s 1935 film Toni which recounts the tragic life and fate of one of these workers coming across the Pyrenees from Spain is unfortunately still relevant today.

CVGerman builders in Bulgaria in Western

Germany uses 300,000 day-labourers a year to harvest its crops, mostly from Romania, Poland, Ukraine, Bulgaria and Hungary. One of the films that most accurately tracks this discrepancy in income and the disdain of more affluent Germans for these easterners is Western which recounts the prejudice of a group of German workers building a power plant in Bulgaria.

To combat this problem, Portugal granted temporary citizenship status to immigrants while in the US, where the federal government is floating a measure to detain undocumented immigrants indefinitely during “emergencies,” Americans bought almost 2 million guns in March, their own Wild West solution to what they view as the immigrant problem and the anarchy they are afraid will come. The Trump administration seconded this solution, declaring weapons stores to be an essential business that should stay open during the quarantine.

Arundhati Roy’s eloquent description of workers on the roads in India where “our towns and megacities began to extrude their working-class citizens – their migrant workers — like so much unwanted accrual,” and where workers with no other resources had to begin a long walk home to their villages.  As they walked, she noted, “some were beaten brutally and humiliated by the police, who were charged with strictly enforcing the curfew” .

Readers might eerily have confused Roy’s description for Defoe’s, since they were so similar. Defoe says:

The constables everywhere were upon their guard not so much, it seems, to stop people passing by as to stop them from taking up their abode in their towns…[because of the “improbable” possibility] that the poor people in London, being distressed and starved for want of work, and want for bread, were up in arms and had raised a tumult, and that they would come out to all the towns round to plunder for bread.

Recurring class tensions have also broken out between states. Before it finally passed a European relief bill, the hardest-hit countries – Spain and Italy – were proposing that the EU issue joint bonds, called Eurobonds or Coronabonds, which would spread the cost of the economic damage caused by the virus among at least the 19 countries of the common currency. The wealthier northern countries, led by Austria, Germany and The Netherlands, refused. It was similar to these countries’ refusal to cancel the debt and instead impose austerity budgets on the countries of the south, after the 2008 crisis.

CVLatvian emigre in Brussels in Oleg

This disparity on a personal level is well documented in Oleg, one of last year’s best films. The film recounts the story of a butcher from Latvia who emigrates to Brussels, the EU capital and centre of its wealth and affluence, quickly loses his job, and is bullied to join the criminal underground in order to survive. Oleg’s individual path is similar to the national path of countries such as Greece.

Finally, to return to Defoe’s description of the plague, the virulence of that disease hastened the appearances of all kinds of charlatans coming out of the woodwork. Because of fear, working people ran to “fortune tellers, cunning-men and astrologers” and London swarmed with “a wicked generation of pretenders to magic, to the black art… and “to a thousand worse dealings with the devil.”

The difference in this stage of neoliberalism, where the state exists to serve the interests of financial capital – the banks, the real estate and insurance industries who the US government bailed out – is that the con-men are running the show.

Thus Trump,  snake-oil salesman and charlatan-in-chief, suggested that people take hydroxychloroquine, an untested drug that could produce fatal heart arrhythmia and that one report claimed Trump had invested in. Trump called the drug a “game changer,” and told his viewers to “Take it. What do you have to lose?”

In Defoe’s time, the King’s court fled the city and allowed lower civil servants to bear the brunt of dealing with the plague. Unfortunately, in our time, the court remains in the White House, and continues the dangerous and deadly process of urging the country to quickly re-open so that the state does not have to subsidize the people, and can continue to ignore worker unemployment and misery. 

Ozark, the disappearing middle class, Freud and Freudians
Wednesday, 15 April 2020 10:02

Ozark, the disappearing middle class, Freud and Freudians

Dennis Broe on the Global Television Beat discusses some TV series dealing with middle-class life under pressure in Ozark, and depictions of Freud and Freudians in Vienna Blood and Freud

The third season of the Netflix popular and critical hit Ozark has the show going ever darker. It’s beginning to make Breaking Bad seem like a sitcom.

In the first season, there seemed to be a way out for the accountant Marty Byrde, participating in money-laundering for a Mexican drug cartel and having to make up for funds the partner in his firm embezzled from the cartel. The Byrde family is forced to flee their comfortable Chicago home to the Ozarks with their two teenage kids.

Here, Laura Linney, Marty’s wife Wendy who had worked in politics, displays an unerring sense of comedy in scenes in which she and Jason Bateman’s Marty proclaim their upstanding wish to better the Missouri community they are holed-up in, while all the time simply setting up bogus businesses to “clean” drug money. Bateman’s stoic, nonplussed deadpan acting is a marvel in itself. He’s a Bob Newhart for the neoliberal age, keeping his cool in a world that grows ever more insane around him.

The cut-throat world  that Marty and Wendy inhabit was exhibited off-screen as well when the show’s production company, Media Rights Capital, was accused of forcing a publication which it owns, The Hollywood Reporter, to report favourably on the company, with the editor resigning possibly due to this pressure.

Ozark body photo American family shattered

Season Two had Wendy forsaking the comedy and moving deeper into the business, opposing an equally unethical FBI agent and in the end participating in a murder. Season Three, just released on Netflix, has the two in the middle of a cartel war and warring themselves. Marty still believes that their troubles are situational and momentary, and if he launders the right amount of money they will get out from under the cartel’s thumb. Wendy, though, strikes out on her own, using her political muscle, and becomes more ruthless in her quest to make herself essential to the cartel chief, who she courts over the phone. This season ends in the couple’s – and particularly Wendy’s – participation in the murder of an intimate. Marty in the end concedes Wendy is right, that the only way out is to become further entangled.

Is this just a crafty “twisty” tale of chicanery? If so, why is the show so wildly popular with both critics, nominated for several Emmys, and audiences, quickly renewed each season by the streaming service based on its (carefully guarded) ratings?

The onslaught on the middle class by corporate capital

The explanation may lie in invoking Raymond Williams’ notion of a “structure of feeling.” By this term Williams meant sometimes barely expressed or even subconscious feelings in art and cultural practices that registered a deep insight into the emotions that lie just under the surface of life. Ozark expresses the emotional tension of the American, and indeed the global, middle class, under increasing pressure to maintain its position in the face of an onslaught by corporate capital which is affecting them as well as the working class below.

There is a racist projection of the ruthless Mexican drug overlord as controlling their lives. However, if we substitute a corporate overlord for the drug kingpin the show is a description of a middle class – a class that in order to hold onto their lifestyle must be constantly at the beck and call of a domineering boss or corporate culture, that demands ever more time away from the family and demands the family become ever more corporate-friendly itself.

Wendy and Marty must be constantly on their toes – the corporate phrase is “adaptive” – to manoeuvre around each new demand of their boss, as more and more middle-class jobs  are being eliminated by automation, and as that class must learn more and work harder to maintain its position. Otherwise, they will be killed – or in more middle-class terms will fall into the working-class poverty of those who surround them in the Ozarks, which is a kind of death for this class.  

Even their kids are affected. The pressure to launder money to keep up their middle-class lifestyle robs their teenage daughter Charlotte of the last years of her adolescence. Meanwhile, the just-becoming-a teen Jonah is introduced to the violence that surrounds the family, and learns Bitcoin investing to stockpile reserves of money to save the family. He also pilots a drone which he uses for spying, participating in the surveillance economy which he will need to be a part of if he is to maintain his position.

Marty and Wendy must make smarter, and more ruthless, decisions each season to survive and in Season Three these pressures force them to compete against each other. There is no port in a storm for an American middle class that is starting to feel the relentless stress of its constant battle to hold its ground and its somewhat extravagant lifestyle. Of course it’s the same stress the global working class is under each day simply in order to survive – Ozark tells us that the two positions are starting to converge into one giant disenfranchised class.

Sigmund Freud, superhero and obedient liberal

Two recent series, both publicly supported, have as their subject the birth of psychoanalysis within the conservative confines of the Hapsburg dynasty in turn-of-the-century Vienna. The BBC’s Vienna Blood (available to stream on PBS, the US public television website), based on the detective novels of Frank Tallis, shows an acolyte of Freud, Dr. Max Liebermann, joining forces with a bulldog working-class police inspector. Together this unlikely pair delve into the unconscious, and the prejudices of an anti-Semitic empire somewhat being attacked from within by Freud’s discoveries of the sexual and violent side of both human nature and the empire itself.

Vienna Blood Freud first body photo

Vienna Blood does settle comfortably though into the rational detective mode with clear-cut villains and evildoers while striking a blow against the militarism of a society structured around rigid social distinctions.

More troubling by far is a programme from Austrian National TV (ORF) called Freud, now streaming on Netflix, with Netflix also a partner in the production. This series is set in the 1880s,  and is on the surface a kind of mixture of Young Sherlock Holmes, that is a coming-of-age Freud obsessed with hypnosis, and The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes, a coke-sniffing Freud who is manic and driven and on the verge of discovering the unconscious. The series is also a kind of origin story, a how Freud became Freud, and in that sense it does not escape the superhero template in revealing how our hero developed and first used his powers.

However, much about this series does not fall into this comfortable framework. Volkslieder, or people’s song moments abound – Brechtian ditties in a tavern that comment on the action while being outside it. The series also delights in an outpouring of all kinds of human waste, as a hysteric spews spittle and blood overflows in a series of brutal murders, in what Freud would later call abnegation, a spewing out or rejection in this case of bodily fluids.

This emphasis on bodily excretions also suggests the Austrian Actionist movement of the 1960s, that was about exhibiting the excesses of the human body as a way of disrupting social order. Hypnosis is here made strange, and practiced by Freud as a conjuring art. It is used not to illuminate but to manipulate the unconscious. 

Freud second body photo An obsessed Freud

Freud battles the brutality of a medical establishment that does not link mind and body, and the series shows him eventually surpassing the cruelty of his mentors. In a parallel plot, the police inspector Alfred Kiss, his sometimes unwitting ally, also contests the savagery of the Austrian military in its murderous rampage against its foes and its cover-up of all wrongdoing.

The series has its problems though. The Hungarians, the subjugated villains, are treated as an unearthly ‘Other,’ savage anarchists out only for revenge. This Freud, for all his disputing of the might of the empire in his own field, like all good liberals comes to the rescue of the Emperor when the chips are down, and helps re-establish Imperial order.

Both series skirt the potentially most shocking and damning aspect of the young Freud’s discoveries – the dreadful patriarchal oppression of incest and abuse that he unearthed from his female patients, lurking at the heart of the Viennese upper middle-class bourgeois order. But Freud himself also suppressed this discovery, choosing instead to explore it as fantasy. So the practice continues to be hidden – not only in TV series depictions of Freud, but in reality as well.

How predatory profit-making warps TV series: Bro on the Global TV beat
Tuesday, 07 April 2020 09:45

How predatory profit-making warps TV series: Bro on the Global TV beat

Dennis Broe continues his series reviewing streamed TV series, and discusses some of the ways the capitalist system affects their availability and content

The Swedish series with the mysterious title Jordskott is an anomaly wrapped in an enigma. It’s really a deeply ecological series, posing as a horror/mystery thriller. The mystery thriller elements include abducted children and several murders perpetrated by a ruthless killer which occur around and in an ancient forest under siege. Eva Thornblad is a Swedish cop from the metropolis of Stockholm who returns to her town at the edge of one of the forests that cover over half of the country in search of her lost daughter who disappeared in the forest many years before, and who suddenly reappears.

The horror elements which emerge slowly and then become more prominent include possible non-human creatures with strange and savage powers, parasites that allow humans to become part of the forest, and a slithery creature who is being nourished by an old woman very in touch with nature, in her bathtub.

From the beginning, there is also the crafty and heartless business cabal that wants to cut down the forest, first by logging and then by dynamiting whole stretches of the green woodland. This is the most verdant series on television. Shots abound of brooks and streams running through lush overgrowth. Landscape is a staple of Nordic series (Twins for example) but here it is not just used for its stunning beauty but is thematically central to a series, about landscapes under pressure and about to be destroyed.

Jordskott and the devastation of the forest

This action takes place in season one, with season two returning Eva to the city, but with the forest now a part of her. Both seasons are available on Shudder, the horror streaming service, and on Amazon Prime. There is a backstory, slowly revealed, about how her father had disrupted the local ecology in the 1970s by spraying large parts of the forest and killing its strange woodland creatures. This reminds us of the more than1 million animals killed and 100 species endangered in the recent fires in Australia, as a result of climate change. Unlike her father, it is Eva who then is initiated into the secrets of the life-giving trees and, in order to save her life, becomes a living, breathing part of the forest herself.

A book of monsters which lurk in the forest further deepens the mythology, relating it to Scandinavian folklore, which itself comes from a time when the Swedes were more in touch with the life-giving capacity of their landscape. This mystical book recalls the American NBC network series Grimm, which each week explored a different beast from the Hans Christian Andersen menagerie.

Grimms Monsters of the Week

However, the grounding of this series in the eco-politics of the forest, and the determination to deepen the link between mythology or primitive thought and the life-giving forces that are being destroyed under a greedy and predatory capitalism, sets this show apart and makes its strange denizens more than merely monsters of the week.

It’s a show that could profitably be redone in many countries – and particularly Brazil, where the Amazon is under constant attack in Bolsonaro’s money-grubbing regime. Not to mention Pennsylvania’s destruction of its rivers and ecosystem by its exploitation of the Marcellus Shale works – its answer to the financial devastation of the 2008 mortgage crisis, spurred on by Trump’s boosting of the unprofitable waste of fracking.

The final image from the much stronger first season is of one of the forest creatures, still in human form, melting back into the grass and vegetation. It’s a powerful image reminding us of our primeval origins and the necessity to stay in touch with that more primitive, life-giving side of ourselves.

Netflix and Latino Culture

Critical darling, audience favourite and casualty of Netflix’ mysterious and sometimes ruthless ratings system, One Day at a Time, about a Hispanic single-mother family, has now found another life on the CBS cable station Pop TV.

One Day at a Time

The show is a revival of a Norman Lear series in the 1970s which focused on a white middle-class single-parent family. The transposition here is to make the family Cuban, consisting of the breadwinner and mother Lupe, her feminist lesbian daughter Elena, their trying- to-be-normal teenage son Alex, and Rita Moreno as the matriarch Lydia, whose fiery and sexually explicit diatribes recalls any of the characters from The Golden Girls, only with a Latin touch.

The series is unabashedly old-style, with a loud and extremely exuberant laugh track, jokes required on about every third line and a lesson learned each week that makes it a pre-Seinfeld sit-com. There is something oddly refreshing about the antiquated nature of the series. Rather than being hip and sophisticated, it’s emotional, touching and wears its heart on its sleeve.

Gentefied and hip Latinos

What really makes it work, far better in fact than stylized “sophisticated” comedies such as Netflix’s own Gentefied, is its topicality in terms of dealing with questions that are pressing for Latino and immigrant populations. This is borrowed from Norman Lear’s ’70s series. The new season begins with a cameo by Ray Romano, of Everybody Loves Raymond, as a census taker, and a debate within the family about whether Latinos, who are often undocumented, should respond and be counted.

In the opening the whole family airs this debate, which is currently relevant because of Trump’s illegal attempt to force respondents to identify whether or not they are citizens. The result of the debate is that they choose to be counted, since this is important for state and federal aid.

In the second episode of this fourth season, rather than a pithy “lesson,” Lupe learns that she need not cling to her miserly ways and that she can afford more comforts for her family. The “lessons” taught here are ones that affect the well-being of these working-class communities as a whole, not simply middle-class adaptive or coping strategies.

The series is lucky to be airing at all. Netflix cancelled it after three seasons claiming its Netflix ratings, which no one outside the company is privy to, were too low for a fourth season. As one of the show’s actors noted, Netflix sometimes saves series which the networks cast aside, but in this case cancelled the series. The Nielsen ratings, which are incomplete and only count Netflix subscribers hooked up to a television, nevertheless showed the ratings for the series increasing, more than doubling from season one to season three.

Latina Single Mother Family in One Day at a Time

With the major US networks, when a series was in trouble, letter-writing and now social media campaigns often caused the network to change their mind and retain a quirky but impactful show, as happened recently with NBC’s Community. Netflix on the other hand simply acted on cold hard facts, making it in this case more ruthless than the networks.

In addition, CBS All Access, the digital component of the CBS network, wanted to air the show, but couldn’t because a clause in the Netflix contract forbade the show from broadcast by any of its streaming competitors.

The show was finally revived by Pop TV, a CBS cable channel, best known for the Emmy-nominated Canadian series Schitt’s Creek. CBS, the outlet for the show’s first broadcast in the 1970s, agreed to also air the show on its network after its run on the cable station, granting the show’s producer Sony two licensing fees and thus making the show more profitable for Sony.

These are the fortunes of a series with a community point of view and a form that can reach that community – battered around and only by chance revived in a system that values profit above all else. One Day at a Time struck back at its former digital home when, in the first scene of season four, Alex complains that he is bored since “there is nothing good on Netflix anymore.”

Twisting the truth: Bro on the Global TV beat
Thursday, 02 April 2020 09:28

Twisting the truth: Bro on the Global TV beat

As more people have to stay home and watch TV, Dennis Broe reviews some current TV series from the U.S., Britain and Iceland, showing how they both expose and conceal real social and economic injustice

The best network series in what might be a season cut short by the coronavirus is ABC’s For Life, a combination prison/court room drama about an innocent African-American inmate sentenced to life imprisonment for being a drug kingpin. The series is based on the true story of Issac Wright Jr., a New Jersey inmate who used his time in prison to become a legal counsellor and claimed to have freed 20 unlawfully jailed prisoners.

DB4 Lawyer prisoner Aaron Wallace in For Life

Similarly, Aaron Wallace, a club owner – as Wright was a promoter who claimed he put together the Latina Girl Group The Cover Girls – is jailed by an ambitious and corrupt Illinois prosecutor, Glen Maskins, who is running for Chicago District Attorney. In order to free himself Wallace studies to become a lawyer, takes the bar, becomes the legal representative for the inmates and begins an aggressive campaign against the would-be DA, attempting to prove a pattern of faulty convictions.  

For Life is a brand new approach to the courtroom drama genre, by crossing it with the prison series and by emphasizing the unfairness of the legal system and the ways African-Americans, Hispanics, and poor whites are caught in the crosshairs of a system that presumes them guilty from the start. This is a system where tainted evidence and lack of investigation characterize the actions of both prejudiced police and politically ambitious prosecutors.

It is stirring to watch Aaron – who changes each week out of his orange prison jumpsuit into the tailored suit of a lawyer and then appears before a judge –masterfully arguing his cases. By being in prison and having access to the stories of inmates, and through his own interaction with the law, Aaron is able to take into court a point of view and perspective on the legal system the lawyers on the opposite side of the courtroom do not have.

He is also accused of cutting corners himself, in his defence of the inmates. On being confronted with this by a liberal female warden who is on his side he answers that with all the obstacles against him, it is up to him where to draw the line. The ultimate statement about his predicament occurs when he is reprimanded by a black cop who he asks to illegally obtain his police file, which he is barred from seeing. To Aaron’s declaration that the procedure is unfair, the cop replies “You should have thought of that before….” Aaron interrupts him with, “Before what, I decided to be black in America?” The cop folds under this logic and grants Aaron his request.

The show was produced by 50 Cent, Curtis James Jackson III, a victim and perpetrator of street violence who was arrested for dealing and was once shot nine times before establishing a highly successful career as a rapper. He wanted to tell Wright’s story and Wright himself is grateful he was able to address the wrong in his own situation. He hopes that the show will be “a beacon of hope and inspiration” for the “thousands of people” wrongly incarcerated that he left behind. .

DB3 Kelsey Grammers evil prosecutor in Proven Innocent

The series is tightly constructed and owes something not only, of course, in the prison context to the landmark HBO series Oz but also to a short-lived courtroom drama from last season called Proven Innocent, where the female Caucasian protagonist becomes a lawyer to escape her own wrongful conviction, and then after being freed becomes an advocate for the underprivileged. She is pursued by a bullying prosecutor (Frazier’s and Boss’s Kelsey Grammer), also running a political campaign, who put her in prison and wants to put her back behind bars. The character of the prosecutor especially owes much to this Fox series which that network quickly dropped. I wonder why?

For Life ups the ante by having its protagonist still in prison and battling to get out, and most crucially by adding the element of that most incarcerated class, black men. Their imprisonment is often not based on guilt or innocence but on a systemic need to discipline a recalcitrant and rebellious population, and to fill the jail cells of a multi-billion-dollar industry that has become a boondoggle for private enterprise. In the Bible, Aaron is the older brother of Moses, who leads the Israelites out of their bondage in Egypt and to freedom. Each week this Aaron attempts the same for an large ethnic group within the American working class, for no reason other than prejudice and profit.

Twisting the truth through twists in the plot 

Alfred Hitchcock talked about the differences between what he called coincidence and suspense. Coincidence was the result of a poorly constructed plot, involving a mystery that seems to simply assemble random events and betrays its own shoddy construction. Suspense, on the other hand, meant involving the audience in a series of events that gripped them and made them a part of the plot because they knew what the characters were going through.

In the era of peak and binge TV, a contemporary buzzword is “twisty.” The word has a positive connotation and indicates not just a surprise ending (as in such films as The Usual Suspects and The Sixth Sense) but rather a continual series of surprises constantly shocking the audience.

DB5 Patriarchal Lineage in The Stranger

Two contemporary Netflix shows, the British series The Stranger and the Icelandic series The Valhalla Murders, are both “twisty” but for radically different ends. The Stranger’s “twists”, akin to coincidence, are simply the sparkplugs of an addictive plot driving the story forward for no reason other than propulsion. The Valhalla Murders, on the other hand, is made up of a series of twists akin to suspense, with each taking the audience deeper into and ripping the curtain off the layers of corruption that infect Icelandic society.

The Stranger is based on a Harlan Coben novel, with Coben as executive producer. The catalyst for the story is the appearance at that most quintessential bourgeois parenting event the kid’s soccer game of a mysterious woman in a baseball cap who reveals to the father of one of the participating boys that his wife has faked a pregnancy and that his two sons may not actually be his. The show centres around lineage, with the father the wronged one in this danger to the succession of patriarchal power.

This mini-series is indeed “twisty” with a new reveal coming not just at the end but generally at about every quarter of each episode. Without revealing these plot turns it is important to note that at the end of a supposed questioning of middle-class bourgeois customs, that order is restored and the sanctity of the bourgeois suburban marriage is reaffirmed even though much of the show has at least summarily questioned it. So they are addictive twists, for the purpose of dragging viewers along with them for commercial reasons, but with almost no interest in questioning what lies behind a trail of deception and violence.

DB2 Corruption in Iceland in The Valhalla Murders

 The Valhalla Murders on the other hand is the complete opposite, though it begins in much the same clichéd way. That most reliable of staples, the serial killer, is the antagonist in this drama about two Icelandic police officers tracking a bloody trail that leads to a now boarded-up boarding school, as the former instructors in the school are being gutted and the police have no clue why. The series is based on the first serial killer case in Iceland, and the first half of the series treads familiar Silence of the Lambs ground.

However, the serial killer plot is surprisingly resolved at the midpoint in the series and at this point it becomes much more interesting as the two cops investigate other possible roots of the violence of the boarding school and as the trail climbs ever higher in the judicial and state hierarchy. ‘Valhalla’ in Nordic mythology is a warriors’ heaven ruled over by Odin, wise but also a vicious warlike figure associated with death. The boarding house is a Valhalla where its young warriors are initiated into an unfair battle that has ruined their lives and made living corpses of them, as they die prematurely or wander aimlessly in jobs that simply occupy their time. They are casualties of a brutal abuse of power.

The twists and turns in The Valhalla Murders deepen the critique of a society that is willing to look at its flaws. In contrast, the twists in The Stranger work to conceal the flaws of an oppressive and exploitative society – instead of exposing and examining them, they are presented as an ever-spinning addictive spiral that obstructs the viewer's critical reflection.

Wealth Porn, in Billions
Tuesday, 24 March 2020 11:06

Fend for Yourself and Get Greedy: 'Bad Banks' and Global Financial Misbehaviour

Dennis Broe on the Global Television Beat, Episode 4

Most presciently these days with the outbreak of the Coronavirus and the collapse of the financial markets, the German powerhouse series Bad Banks opened Season One with the story of a run on Germany’s third largest bank. Equally prescient was the opening of Season Three of the other powerhouse German series Babylon Berlin which begins with the 1929 stock market crash and has the lead detective stumbling down the stairs of a bank amid suicides and bills fluttering from the ceiling, before he opens the door and is trampled by those stampeding to get their money back.

Mad Speculation

Season One of Bad Banks depicted the mad speculation at Deutsche Invest prior to the 2008 subprime crisis as Jena Liekam, the young financial climber and her two colleagues managed to abscond with a couple of million dollars. They stowed this money in a Caribbean account while Jena’s boss Gabriele Fenger went to jail for insider trading.

Jena Leikams pact with the devil her boss in Bad Banks

In Season Two, now streaming on Hulu, Deutsche Invest, under scrutiny but expanding, has become Global Invest with the bank now interested in merging itself with the budding start-up culture and industry in what it calls “Fintech.” Jena is dispatched from the corporate headquarters of Frankfurt, the financial centre, to Berlin, the centre of the start-up and tech industry. She is the emissary as the bank wants to take over a start-up whose goal is to help investors participate in sustainable development, a sort of greenwashing app which nevertheless could do some good. The free flowing atmosphere of the start-up, more playroom and gym than business, is transformed by the bank into the more formal cubicles of what it calls ominously “The Incubator.”

Fenger, Jena’s ex-lover, returns from a short stay in prison and launches his own start-up. His is an app that simply expands investment at wherever is most profitable, jettisoning the sustainable development component. Deutsche Global sides with Fenger and orders Jena to disband the start-up with which she had been working. She complies sadly but efficiently, and returns time and again to the owner and financier of the former start-up looking for forgiveness and clemency which he will not grant her.

Indeed, this second season focuses more on the personal character of the three young bankers and the duplicity necessary for their survival in the world of high finance. Jena and her partner Adam, trying to cover their theft of funds in Season One, end up as accomplices to a murder in order to keep their secret from the prying eyes of Jena’s banker elder, Christelle Leblanc, who wants to use the information to control her. Adam meanwhile falls prey at home to the intensity and violence that works quite well in investment circles, as his wife cloisters herself and their children from his brutal temper. Thao Huong, one of the few non-Caucasians connected with the bank, betrays both of them and they equally violently dismiss her.

If the young bankers are loathsome but energetic, their elders are worse. Jena flaunts the power of youth, telling Christelle that she has 40 years left in the business while Christelle has “at most 10.” Christelle reacts with a series of underhand moves to again keep Jena under her thumb, including an alliance with Fenger which results in the jettisoning of the sustainable development app. At the same time, one of the heads of the bank covers up the murder of a sadistic older government regulator by the sex worker they had assigned to pacify him after the regulator had attacked her.

Wealth Porn in Billions

The dark and shadowy palette that engulfs this world even in daytime strengthens the ominous mood that surrounds these financial activities. Bad Banks is the antithesis of more superficial American series about wealth creation such as Billions and Succession which amount to nothing more than “wealth porn.” This series about the financial centre at the heart of the European Union details a professional and personal landscape bereft of morality which has turned that union into a moneygrubbing entity that puts the rich first. The series presents even its young protagonists as riddled with a kind of greed, ambition and drive for power at all costs that is responsible for destroying the possibility of a Europe united for a common good – one that could help to steer the world in a progressive direction.

Nancy Drooling          

There is a worrisome change going on in one of the better teen shows this season, Nancy Drew. The pilot presented a now young-adult Nancy, just graduated from high school, mourning the death of her mother by pancreatic cancer, suspicious of her lawyer father who was a high priced “cleaner” for the richest family in town, and sleeping with an African-American ex-con. This was truly a Nancy Drew toughened up for the neoliberal age, with her parents either victimized by chemical pollution or servants of the rich and with Nick her boyfriend proving to be much nicer than the wealthy scion of the richest family, Ryan Hudson. Hudson is revealed to be crudely exploitative when in a Twin Peaks moment, in the pilot finale, the adult Hudson is shown having an affair with Georgia or “George” Fan, Nancy’s teen rival in in high school and currently her boss.

Nancy Drew and the Drewettes

So far, so good, and the daunting 22-week schedule still revolves around the cold case murder of a high school girl though the whodunit seems to be shifting away from the power centres of the town, in contrast to Nancy’s progenitor Veronica Mars which accused those characters. Twenty-two episodes, the requirement for a network series, is harder now in the era of Serial TV when each show can no longer just be a witty way of repackaging the material but must relate to each other show and where relationships must be more fluid and changing.

That said though the changes in this show are disturbing. Nancy’s path is now being normalized, that is, her journey and aspects of the case itself are moving her from an outsider status into the centre of power of the town, while all the while denigrating those on the outside. She has slowly dropped her African-American boyfriend Nick to tentatively begin a relationship with the scion of the second wealthiest family in the town. Her father’s character has now switched over from deceitful shady lawyer to an innocent “caring Dad” waylaid by Nancy’s too eager pursuit of the killer of the dead girl. The actual killer in the first murder was revealed at the midpoint in the series to be a working-class character out for revenge on the wealthy. Also, on the relationship front, the Asian owner of the restaurant George is now aligned with the African-American Nick. Likes finally attract – or in the CW network’s gender and racial politics, dominants attract – and minorities are left to pair off with each other.

Nor is this the only show to follow this pattern. Stumptown, one of the better of this season’s series which often deals intelligently and caringly with female issues, has the alcoholic private detective and lead character Dex Parios at first dating and sleeping with an African-American cop, Miles Hoffman. She then shuts that relationship down, claiming it’s unprofessional, in what seems a flimsy excuse for jettisoning him. Miles then finds his way to the female Asian cop with whom he works. The same pattern was followed in the Canadian series of a few seasons ago Shoot the Messenger where the young red-headed female reporter is shown in the opening scene having sex with a black cop but then instead sleeps with the Caucasian older reporter assigned to assist her in her story. In that series though she finds her way back to her original love interest.

chinatown

We used to have the character change in lead characters being from that of a wily or somewhat ruthless character to that of a character who finds their moral path. Best example is the detective in Chinatown who once again tries to help someone in need, after ruthlessly preying upon his clients. In these series, the disturbing trend is a movement from a somewhat outsider status to one of stricter conformity. Redemption comes not from re-finding a moral code but from reestablishing more traditional power relations. Such is life in an era where each is left to fend for themselves and greed rules.  

'Hunters' TV series
Sunday, 15 March 2020 16:03

'Taken Down' and the underbelly of the Celtic Tiger: Bro on the Global TV beat

Dennis Broe presents Episode 3 of his series on TV series

First it was called the Celtic Tiger, and then the Celtic Phoenix. The rise of Ireland to a European economic powerhouse was fuelled initially by a housing boom, which then crashed in the wake of the bursting of the US housing bubble. The Phoenix then rose from the ashes, stimulated this time by Foreign Direct Investment as Ireland became a corporate and particularly a tech and Silicon Valley tax shelter.

This phenomenon even gave rise to what in tax swindling parlance is referred to as a “Double Irish with a Dutch sandwich,” a way of a company funneling both US and European profits through the low tax rates of Ireland and The Netherlands and then on into Caribbean countries with zero tax rates, so that if the accounting is done to perfection the original company pays no taxes at all.

This “Leprechaun Economics” profited a few while leaving the many behind, and led in the most recent election to the rejection of the two ruling business-friendly parties, Fianna Fail and Fine Gael. Instead, the population embraced Sinn Fein, which promised, like Bernie Sanders in the US and Jeremy Corbyn in the UK, to redress the blatant inequality that now defines the country, and to focus on healthcare, education and housing.

taken down

This is the background from which springs the Irish series Taken Down (available on Amazon), an often bitter grappling with the underside of the economic miracle as seen from the perspective of a family of Nigerian refugees. The series begins with an African mother, Abeni Bankole and her two kids, explaining that her husband has been killed, swept into the sea on the trip over, and that she is seeking a new life in Ireland.

We then flash forward four years later where the family of three is still trapped in a one-room flat that is part of a decaying high-rise on the edge of Dublin. This hovel is contrasted to frequent long shots of a modern downtown, with its gleaming freeways and polished corporate skyscrapers. The bright lights of the economic miracle stand in stark contrast to the drab nether regions of those on the outside of that miracle.

The mother is forced into clandestine cleaning work in a brothel, which it turns out preys upon the young refugee girls for its ill-gotten gains. Brian Gleeson is particularly effective and loathsome in the series as the supposedly caring government supervisor of the housing estate which he uses as a site from which to funnel underage girls to the brothel, while also exploiting them himself. The death of one of these girls brings in the Irish police, which includes a sympathetic female inspector and a casually racist hotshot young male detective.

Nigerian Mother Courage

The show is at its best in documenting the prejudice and air of superiority projected by the supervisor, the male cop and most blatantly and offhandedly by the gangster overlord of the brothel, who insouciantly manipulates the girls and the other Nigerians who work for him. The mother, who tries to protect both her sons and the girls in the brothel as much as she can while under the careful scrutiny of the gangster boss, is the emotional centre of the series. She has been compared to Brecht’s Mother Courage, a scavenger in the Thirty Years War. Abeni is actually more caring and less stoic, though like Brecht’s character she is also trapped in her own kind of war, this time a class war, and forced to accommodate herself to it.

The irony is the Irish have always been thought of as amongst the downtrodden of Europe, but in the wake of the wealth that is permeating the country, they are seen here as projecting their superiority on the most downtrodden. The tax-evading values of the corporate scam at the top of the Irish social pyramid seep down onto the street. Here we watch Irish people pursuing the same kind of greedy profit at all costs mentality, with more visible exploitative consequences that are experienced most of all by the young Nigerian women in the brothel.

Bob Hearts Abishola

The Nigerian mother’s plight is a far harsher but more realistic view of the problems of integration into the West than the proud Nigerian nurse who is the heroine of CBS and Chuck Lorre’s Bob Hearts Abishola. That series is a very touching romance but in comparison to Taken Down it presents a softened and sanitised view of the ruggedness and poverty of the African immigrant experience.

Hunters and The Commodification of Evil

There is nothing impoverished about the high production values of Amazon’s Hunters, a flashy BIFF-BAM-POW, highly-stylized, comic-book version of the Holocaust and its aftermath. It has drawn criticism because of its overinflated scenes from the camps, including one of a human chess board where the pieces taken off the table are then slaughtered. Hannah Arendt talked about the banality of evil in her coverage of the Nuremburg trials of the Nazis after the war. Here, what we have is the “commodification of evil.” Unlike say JoJo Rabbit which has something serious and heartfelt to say about the limiting stupidity of xenophobia and hate speech, this show is only about the hyperactive, overblown narratives now powering the race between Netflix, Amazon and the other streaming services for viewers.

Hunters

The series is open about its comic-book intentions. There is one point where the boy who is being brought into the gang of Nazi hunters, each with their own “powers,” asks the leader how he put the team together, referring to him as “Professor X.” This references a concentration camp plot at the origin of the X-Men and acknowledges the comic-book aspect of the series.

Hunters also deals with aspects of the post-Holocaust experience, including Operation Paperclip, where the US secretly brought Nazi scientists to work on its projects, most notably the space race and the hydrogen bomb. This is old material though, and has done much better, fo example in The X-Files. Here the intersection with reality only adds to the superhero and supervillain bluster to the point where the end of season one is the introduction of the ultimate Holocaust villain, here reduced to the status of a Magneto, the X-Men’s arch foe.

The show is set in 1977 and draws upon other comic-like pop illusions, including Blaxploitation costumes and imagery, and campy Batman graphics from that 1970s show, which work to dislocate the show from any factual historical grounding.

Batman

This is Al Pacino’s first series. He is at the centre of it as the leader of the band, and is perhaps the most troubling character in the series. He preaches a violent form of not justice but revenge, justified by the still active and lethal presence of the Nazis. There is a recognition that the violence he perpetuates is the result of what happened to him in the camps, but this realization is lost within the show’s overwhelming attitude – and the Pacino character’s persistent argument – that the only real imperative is a forward thrust toward more unquestioned violence.

Yes, there is a resurgence today of anti-Semitism, and the Nazi sentiments never die – witness the far right AFD in Germany. However, there are no global plots for a Nazi takeover, and thus the violence the show promotes may be necessary self-defence by Jews but it could also eerily rationalize other forms of violence prevalent today, including that of Israeli settlers and their protectors against the Palestinians.  

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